The full glossary

Welcome to the A-Z of ingredients, where you can discover all you need to know about the science behind our brand.


Molecules that safely interact with free radicals and terminate the chain reaction before vital molecules are damaged.


Counteracting free radicals.


A material that has interaction with or effect on any cell tissue in the human body. In pharmacology, a biological activity or pharmacological activity describes the beneficial effect of a drug on living matter.


A molecule, produced by a living organism.


Any group of insoluble fibrous proteins that constitute the main structural component of connective tissue.


A (homogeneous and stable) suspension consisting of large molecules (or ultramicroscopic particles) of one substance dispersed in a second.

cutaneous intercellular space

Space located between skin cells.

disodium lauryl sulfosuccinate (dls)

DLS is a cleansing agent known as a surfactant, with gentle degreasing, emulsifying, and foaming properties suitable even for more sensitive skin types.

Despite similar names, DLS is not to be confused with Sodium Lauryl Sulfate (SLS) or Sodium Laureth Sulfate (SLES). As DLS is not sulfated in production, it is free from sulfates and therefore the potentially harmful effects to the skin. DLS also contains larger molecules, and does not penetrate and irritate the skin the way SLS and SLES do, hence its use as a gentle yet effective alternative to sulfates.


(Deoxyribonucleic acid) A double helix molecule (helix is 3D) structure. An organic substance whose molecules consist of long chains of nucleotides. Nucleotides are molecules that, when joined, make up the individual structural units of the nucleic acids RNA and DNA.


Fibrous glycoprotein (protein with carbohydrate attached to it) found in connective tissue.


A substance that is inert - e.g. serves as a vehicle or medium alongside the active ingredient.

free radicals

Atoms or groups of atoms with an odd (unpaired) number of electrons and can be formed when oxygen interacts with certain molecules causing a chain reaction that causes damage to cell membrane.

hydroxyl radical

A toxic substance, which is highly reactive to collagen and elastin causing their oxidation and degradation.


Any class of fatty substances or their derivatives that are not soluble in water and include many natural oils, waxes and steroids (from the Greek meaning ‘fat’).

lipid peroxidation

Oxidative degradation of unsaturated lipids. The process whereby free radicals ‘trap’ electrons from the lipids in cell membrane resulting in cell damage.


Pertaining to the chemical breakdown of fat.


Blood circulation in the capillaries (the smallest vessels with very thin walls).


Matrix mettaloproteinases. A family of zinc dependent endopeptidases collectively capable of degrading essentially all extracellular matrix components.


Formulations with ingredients that do not block pores.


Interaction between oxygen molecules and all the different substances they may contact, from metal to living tissue.


A short chain of amino acids. The amino acids in a peptide are connected to one another in a sequence by bonds called peptide bonds. Typically, peptides are distinguished from proteins by their shorter length, although the cut-off number of amino acids for defining a peptide and protein can be arbitrary.


The scale of acidity or alkalinity, where values below 7 (neutral) is acidic and greater than 7 is basic.

Naturally, skin is slightly acidic with a pH of around 5.5, with a thin protective layer made up of sebum called the acid mantle which is important for permeability barrier formation and antimicrobial defence.

Due to its bacteria-regulating properties, maintaining a low pH in the acid mantle is especially important for individuals with skin conditions such as acne, rosacea, and dermatitis.


Short for ‘surface active ingredient’, surfactants reduce surface tension in solutions. They enable substances that normally do not mix to suspend in the other – e.g. allowing water to mix with oil and dirt to facilitate their removal.

tensor effect

An apparent and immediate reduction of the wrinkle depth, leading to a smoother aspect of the skin.


A group of similar cells from the same origin that together carry out a specific function.


Triterpenoids are metabolites of isopentenyl pyrophosphate oligomers and represent the largest group of phytochemicals. It has been estimated that more than 20,000 triterpenoids exist in nature.

vitamin e

A fat-soluble vitamin with several forms, but alpha-tocopherol is the only one used by the human body. Its main role is to act as an antioxidant, scavenging loose electrons—so-called “free radicals”—that can damage cells.